एक नज़र में आईपीएम

Keeping in view ill effects of chemical pesticides such as development of pest resistance to commonly used pesticides, pest resurgence, outbreak of secondary pests, pesticide residues in food, fodder, soil, air and water resulting in human health hazards and ecological imbalances, Govt. of India, Deptt. of Agriculture & Cooperation has adopted Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as cardinal principle and main plank of plant protection technology in the country since 1985. The detail of which is as under:

Integrated Pest Management
1. Scheme STRENGTHENING & MODERNISATION OF PEST MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN INDIA
  Sub-Scheme/Component PROMOTION OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM)
2. Commencement 1992, when Central Integrated Pest Management Centres
(CIPMCs) were established by merging all Central Plant
Protection Stations (CPPS), Central urveillance Stations
(CSS) and Central Biological Control Stations (CBCS).
3. Mandate Promotion of IPM in Plant Protection under the overall crop production programme
4. Objectives
  • Maximise crop production with minimum input costs.
  • Minimise environmental pollution in soil, water and air due to pesticides.
  • Minimise occupational health hazards due to chemical pesticides.
  • Preserve ecosystem and maintain ecological equilibrium.
  • No or less use of chemical pesticides for minimum pesticide residues.
  • To improve farming system.
5. Major Activities
  • Monitoring of pests and diseases for forewarning
  • Conservation of natural enemies in farmer’s fields.
  • Production and field releases of biocontrol agents.
  • Promotion of ecofriendly IPM inputs like biopesticides/neem based pesticides.
  • Human Resource Development by imparting IPM training to extension officers and farmers through FFSs/SLTPs/Short during IPM Prorgramme.
  • Popularise IPM technology among farming community.
6. Present Status of Central IPM Centres 31 CIPMCs in 28 States and 1 UT
7. Annual Target (2010-11)
  • Pest Monitoring  8.016 lakhs ha
  • Field releases of biocontrol agents  1665 million
  • Area Coverage  5.286 lakh ha
  • (Augmentation & conservation of biocontrol agents)

  IPM Trainings & Demonstrations up to March, 2010
  • Farmers Field Schools (Nos)  12931
  • Agriculture Extension Officers to be Trained (Nos.)  54349
  • Farmers to be trained  388863
8. IPM Achievements (since 1994 to March 2010)
  • Pest Monitoring  123.78 lakh ha
  • Field releases of biocontrol agents  27574 million
  • Area Coverage  98.45 lakh ha
  • (Augmentation & conservation of biocontrol agents)

  IPM Trainings conducted (since 1994-2010)
  • Master Trainer’s Training courses (Seasons Long Trainings) conducted on Various Agricultural/Horticultural  crops  48 Nos
  • Master Trainers Trained through SLTs  1697 Nos
  • Farmers’ Field Schools organized  12931  Nos byCIPMCs/KVKs/SAUs
  • Agriculture/Horticulture Extension Officers Trained through FFSs  54369 Nos
  • Farmers trained through FFSs  3,88,863 Nos
  • Persons (Pesticide dealers, NGOs, lead farmers, private entrepreneurs etc.) trained under Human resource Developments Programmes (2&5 daysduration) on IPM skills 13730
9. IPM Package of Practices:

Posters, Manuals & Farmer’s Field Guides prepared:

These have been developed for the following 77 crops which includes Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Pigeon pea, Black gram/Green gram, Gram, Rajmah, Pea, Groundnut, Soybean, Rapeseed/Mustard, Sesame, Safflower, Castor, Sunflower, Potato, Onion, Tomato, Cruciferous Vegetables, Leguminous Vegetables, Cucurbitaceious vegetables, Brinjal, Okra, Chillies, Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Citrus, Pineapple, Sapota, Pomegranate, Grapes, Apple, Mango, Guava, Banana, Litchi, Papaya, Apricot, Peach, Pear, Cherry, Walnut, Ber, Amla, Small Cardamom, Large Cardamom, Black Pepper, Coriander, Cumin, Fennel (Saunf), Ginger, Coconut, Cashew, Arecanut, Oil Palm, Tea, Jack fruit, Spinach, Broccoli, Loquat, Strawberry, Olive, Watermelon, Lablab bean , Garlic, Betelvine. Fig, Phalsa, Saffron, Custard apple, Persimmon, Kiwi, Passion fruit and Raspberry

  • Manual in Hindi & English on Rice and Cotton for Subject Matter Specialists(SMS)
  • Farmers field guide in Hindi & English on Rice and Cotton.
  • Handbooks on diagnosis and Integrated Pest Management of cotton pests in English, Hindi, Punjabi, Telugu languages.
  • Folders on IPM in Cotton in Hindi, English, Punjabi and Telugu
  • Posters in Hindi & English in Cotton and Rice for recognition of pests and natural enemies.

10. Grants-in-aids to States

To supplement the State efforts, grants-in-aid has been earmarked to the States/UTs for the establishment of 29 State Biocontrol Laboratories (SBCLs) @ Rs. 50.00 lakh per laboratory. So far, a sum of Rs. 1372.00 lakh has already been released to the States for construction of Laboratory building and procurement of equipment and vehicles. Statement showing funds allocated, amount spent and unspent balances against the States during VIII & X Plans for the establishment of State Biological Control Laboratories (SBCLs) under the scheme “Strengthening and Modernization of Pest Management Approach in India” . All the States except Jammu & Kashmir and Uttaranchal have made considerable progress in the construction work and commissioning of the laboratories. States may consider expeditious commissioning of the SBCLs so that additional infrastructure is created in the States for mass production of bio-control agents. During 10th Five Year Plan Govt. of India, had approved grant in aid for establishment of more State Bio-control Laboratoriesy (SBCLs) in States. So far, Govt. of India has released Rs. 405 lakh @ Rs. 45 lakh per lab. to States of Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Haryana, Maharashtra and Uttaranchal. The States should put their full efforts for early establishment of these SBCLs. States are requested to furnish utilization certificates of funds released so far.

Further, Grants-in-aid is proposed to be given to NGOs for setting up of State Bio-control Laboratories in the form of subsidy @ Rs, 5.00 lakh per Laboratory for purchase of equipments subject to the conditions given in guidelines. The guidelines have already been circulated to all the States. The same may be brought to the notice of all concerned. So far, administrative approval of competent authority for purchase of laboratory equipments have been issued to 19 NGOs while financial sanction and release of funds to 15 NGOs has been made.

11. Biocontrol Laboratories/ Units in India
  • CIPMCs  31 Nos.
  • ICAR/SAUs/ DBT  48 Nos.
  • State Biocontrol Labs  98 Nos
  • Private Sector Labs  141 Nos.
  • Total  318 Nos.
12. External Technical Assistance FAO-EU Project on IPM IN COTTON

Duration:  5 years (2000-2004)
Trainings conducted

External Technical Assistance
  No. trained/produced No. trained/produced No. organised/trained
ToF Facilitators FToF Facilitators FFS Farmers
FAO-EU 5 163 3 105 358 13836
Through States 21 524 7 271 1098 21992
Grant Total 26 687 10 376* 1456 35828**

* of these 25 were women
** this include 5854 female farmers

13. Registered Biopesticides LIST OF REGISTERED BIOPESTICIDES & THEIR FORMULATIONS FOR USE IN THE COUNTRY up to March, 2010
1. Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis
  1. Serotype H-14, Strain 164, WP
  2. Serotype H-14, Strain VCRC B-17, slow release granules
  3. Serotype H-14, Strain VCRC B-17, WP
  4. Serotype H-14, 12 AS
  5. Serotype H14, Strain VCRC B-17, 5 AS
  6. Serotype H-14, 5% WP
2. Bacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki
  1. Strain A-97, serotype H-3a, 35 WP
  2. Serotype-(3a, 3b 3c), Strain DOR-bt-1, 0.5% WP
  3. Serotype 3a, 3b, Strain HD-1 3.5% ES
  4. Serotype 3a, 3b, Strain Z-52
3. Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae, Serotype 3a, 3b, Strain R 1593m 1.3% FC
4. Bacillus sphaericus   Serotype 5a, 5b, Strain 1593m 1.3% EC
5.
Beauveria bassiana
Beauveria bassiana 1% WP, 1.15% WP, 2.15% WP, 10% SC, 1.5% WP,
(Strain Umiam) 5% WP
(Strain AAI) 1.15% WP
Stain T-stains 1.15%WP
6. Trichoderma viride
Trichoderma viride
(Strain TNAU) 1% WP, 0.5% WS, 1.5% WP, 0.5%WP
(Strain KAU) 1% WP
(Strain T-4 (MP)) 5%WP
7. Verticillum lecanii

(Strain: Umiam)  1.15% WP

8. NPV of Helicoverpa armigera
NPV
(Strain:GBS/HNPV-01) 0.43% AS, 0.5% AS, 0.64% AS,
  1.0% AS, 2% AS
9. NPV of Spodoptera litura  0.5% AS
10. Trichoderma harzianum
Trichoderma
(Strain: IIHR-Th-2) 1% WP, 2% WP, 0.5% WS
11. Metarrhizium anisopliae  1.0% WP, 1.15% WP
12.
Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas fluorescence 0.5% WP, 1.0% WP, 1.25% WP,
(Strain TNAU) 1.5% WP, 1.25% WP
(Strain KAU) 0.5% WP
13. Verticillum chlamydosporium  1% WP
14.
Paecilomyces
Paecilomyces lilacinus 0.5% WP, 1.15% WP,1.0 % WP
(Strain: IIHR)  
15. Ampelomyces quisqalis  2 % WP
16. Bacillus subtilis  1.5 % AS
17. Photorhabdous luminescens akhurstii strain K-1 52% (w/v) EC
Botanical biopesticides
18. Azadirachtin  0.03% EC, 0.3% , 0.1% EC, 0.15% EC, 1% EC, 1%, 2.5%, 25%
19.
Pyrethrum
Pyrethrum/Pyrethrin 0.2% Aerosol, 0.4% Mat, 0.3% Agarbatti, 0.2%
  Coil, 0.05% Spray, 25% Extract, 0.2% DP, 0.2%
  PH, 2% EC & 2.5% EC
14. Consumption of biopesticides/Neem based pesticides (MT)
Consumption
Year Neem Bt G. Total
1994-95 83 40 123
1995-96 128 47 175
1996-97 186 33 219
1997-98 354 41 395
1998-99 411 71 482
1999-2000 739 135 874
2000-01 551 132 683
2001-02 736 166 902
2002-03 632 143 775
2003-04 824 157 981
2004-05 965 139 1104
2005-06 1717 203 1920
2006-07 1191 - 1191
2007-08 1563 - 1563
2008-09 1235 158 1394
2009-10 1131 131 1262
15. Demand and Supply of Biocontrol Agents
(Estmiated) in India
Demand and Supply
Biocontrol Agents Production Demand Area covered
Trichogramma spp. 14,241.64 14,312.90 approximate (in million Nos)
Trichoderma spp.(in Kg) 4,504.00 36,100.00 {43} lakh ha.
NPV (LE) 21,715.00 2,07,700.00  
16. Cost of biopesticides/biocontrol agents V/s pesticide (endosulfan) application
Cost of biopesticides
BIOPESTICIDE/BIO CONTROL AGENT BIOPESTICIDE**
COST (RS)/Ha
PESTICIDE*
COST (RS.)/Ha
B. thuringiensis @ 1 kg/ha. 864 350-500
NPV 213 350-500
NEEM PRODUCTS 500 350-500
LADY BIRD BEETLES 900 350-500
CHRYSOPA SPP. 410 350-500
TRICHOGRAMMA SPP. (COTTON) 450 350-500
TRICHOGRAMMA SPP. (SUGARCANE) 150 350-500

*Requires repeated application resulting in destruction of beneficial.
** Except neem products, biopesticides are self perpetuating / reproducing agents in nature and do not require repeated applications.

17. Consumption of Chemical Pesticides in India
Consumption
YEAR QUANTITY
MT (Tech. Grade)
1994-95 61,357
1995-96 61,260
1996-97 56,114
1997-98 52,239
1998-99 49,157
1999-00 49,157
2000-01 43,584
2001-02 47,020
2002-03 48,350
2003-04 41,020
2004-05 40,672
2005-06 39773
2006-07 41515
2007-08 43630
2008-09 43860
2009-10 41822

Sources: States/UTs Zonal Conferences on inputs.

18. Impact of IPM
  • Crop yield increased from 6.72 – 40.14% in rice and 22.7 – 26.63% in cotton in IPM fields compared to non-IPM fields.
  • Chemical pesticide sprays were reduced to the extent of 50-100% in rice and 29.96 to 50.5% in cotton.
  • Use of biopesticides/neem based pesticides increased from 123 MT during 1994-95 to 1262 MT during2009-10.
  • Over all consumption of chemical pesticide in the country reduced from 75033 MT (Tech. grade) during 1990-91 to 41822 MT (T.G.) during 2009-10.