Glossary of Terms | Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage | GOI

Glossary of Terms

NON-GREGARIOUS ADULTS AND HOPPERS

ISOLATED (FEW)

  • Very few present and no mutual reaction occurring.
  • 0-1 adult/400 m foot transect (or less than 25/ha.).

SCATTERED (SOME, LOW NUMBERS)

  • enough present for mutual reaction to be possible but no ground or basking groups seen:
  • 1-20 adults/400 m foot transect (or 25-500/ha).

GROUP

  • Forming ground and basking groups;
  • 20+ adults/400 m foot transect (or 500+/ha).

ADULT SWARM AND HOPPER BAND SIZES

VERY SMALL

  • swarm: less than 1km2 * band: 1-25 m2

SMALL

  • swarm: 1-10 km2 * band: 25-2,500 m2

MEDIUM

  • swarm: 10-100 km2 * band: 2,500 m2-10 ha

LARGE

  • swarm: 100-500 km2 * band: 10-50 ha

VERY LARGE

  • swarm: 500+ km2 * band: 50+ ha

RAINFALL

LIGHT

  • 1-20 mm of rainfall.

MODERATE

  • 21-50 mm of rainfall.

HEAVY

  • more than 50 mm of rainfall.

OTHER REPORTING TERMS

BREEDING

  • the process of reproduction from copulation to fledging.

SUMMER RAINS AND BREEDING

  • July - September/October

WINTER RAINS AND BREEDING

  • October - January/February

SPRING RAINS AND BREEDING

  • February - June/July

DECLINE

  • a period characterized by breeding failure and/or successful control leading to the dissociation of swarming populations and the onset of  recessions: can be regional or major.

OUTBREAK

  • a marked increase in locust numbers due to concentration, multiplication and gregarization which, unless checked, can lead to the formation of hopper bands and swarms.

UPSURGE

  • a period following a recessions marked initially by a very large increase in locust numbers and contemporaneous outbreaks followed by the production of two or more successive seasons of transient-to-gregarious breeding in complimentary seasonal breeding areas in the same or neighboring Desert Locust regions.

PLAGUE

  • a period of one or more years of widespread and heavy infestations, the majority of which occur as band or swarms. A major plague exists when two or more regions are affected simultaneously.

RECESSION

  • period without widespread and heavy infestations by swarms.

REMISSION

  • Period of deep recession marked by the complete absence of gregarious populations.

WARNING LEVELS:

GREEN

  • Calm: No threat to crops. Maintain regular surveys and monitoring.

YELLOW

  • Caution: Potential threat to crops. Increased vigilance is required: control operations may be needed.

ORANGE

  • Threat: Threat to crops. Survey and control operations must be undertaken.

RED

  • Danger: Significant threat to crops. Intensive survey and control operations must be undertaken.

REGIONS OF LOCUST AFFECTED COUNTRIES

WESTERN

  • Locust-affected countries in West and North-West Africa: Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, and Tunisia; during plagues only: Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau.

CENTRAL

  • Locust-affected countries along the Red Sea; Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen: during plagues only: Bahrain , Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Qatar, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, UAE and Uganda.

EASTERN

  • Locust-affected countries in South-West Asia: Afghanistan, India, Iran and Pakistan.