1. STRENGTHENING AND MODERNIZATION OF PEST MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN INDIA (SMPMA)
A. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
The IPM activities are being undertaken through 35 CIPMCs with the following objectives:-
- Popularization of IPM among farming community
- Conducting pest surveillance and monitoring to assess pest/ disease situation
- Mass production of biological control agents for releasing in the farmers fields and conservation of natural bio control agents
- Promotion of bio-pesticides as an alternative to chemical pesticides
- To play a facilitating role in dissemination of IPM technology among the agricultural extension workers and farmers
- Human resource development in IPM by imparting field oriented training to extension workers and farmers through farmers field schools(FFSs) approach
- Conducting of FFSs through KVKs/SAUs/ ICAR institutes to develop capacity building at farm level
- Conducting of short duration courses (two and five days), for progressive farmers / pesticides dealers / NGOs / students
- Conducting of season-long training (SLT) programmes on major agricultural/ Horticultural crops for extension workers of the states governments/SAUs
The Directorate is also helping farmers by providing relevant information on plant protection, IPM Practices etc. through a mobile app called Kisan Suvidha.
B. Locust Control & Research (LCR)
The Locust Warning Organization includes activities viz. :-
- Regular extensive survey and monitoring of locust population by LWOs in approximately 2, 00,000 sq. kms. scheduled desert area (SDA) (Rajasthan, Gujarat and part of Haryana) which is kept check on local breeding and invasion of locusts besides control of its population.
- This prevents the damage to the standing crops and other green vegetation, thereby preventing financial losses to the inhabitants of the area. Research on the efficacy of native and exotic bio-agents for control of locusts and grasshoppers through biological means protects the environment from ill effects of chemical pesticides.
- During tenth five year plan, the Locust Warning Organization has been restructured into one Central Hqrs at Faridabad, one Field Hqrs at Jodhpur and 10 Locust Circle Offices at Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Palanpur, Bhuj, Jalore, Phalodi, Nagaur, Suratgarh and Churu by merging the five Circle offices and 23 Locust Outposts. Besides, there is one Field Station for Investigations on Locusts (FSIL) situated at Bikaner.
C. Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIB&RC)
The Secretariat of CIB&RC is entrusted with carrying out all activities, which offshoot directly from the responsibilities entrusted to the functioning of CIB and RC, besides other allied matters. These involve: –
- Processing of applications for grant of registration of Insecticides, including scrutiny of Issuing of certificates of registration after approval by the RC every month
- Dealing with the cases for inclusion of new insecticides in Schedule to the Act
- Processing of post registration matters of insecticides
- Issuing import permits for import of sample quantities of insecticides for research, test and trial purposes
- Issuing import permits for import of insecticides for non-insecticidal uses
- Dealing of matters related to appeals, RTIs, court cases, etc pertaining to the Secretariat
- Formulating draft guidelines for data generation scientifically and prescribing data requirement for registration of insecticides
- Rendering advice on technical matters to Central and State Governments as well as pesticide Industry
- Amendments to the Act as well as the Rules
- Review of insecticides for restricting, banning or continued use
- Organizing CIB Meetings for deciding policy issues and RC meetings for grant of registrations, endorsements and import permits
- Facilitating fixing of Tolerance Limits/Maximum Residue Limits of pesticides on agricultural commodities
D. Central Insecticides Laboratory (CIL)
- To analyze such samples of insecticides sent to it under the Act by any officer or authority and submission of certificates of analysis to the concerned authority
- To analyze samples of materials for insecticide residues under the provisions of the Act
- To carry out such investigations as may be necessary for the purpose of ensuring the conditions of Registration of Insecticides
- To determine the efficacy and toxicity of insecticides
- To carry out such other functions as may be entrusted to it by the Central Government or by a State Government with the permission of the Central Government & after consultation with the Central Insecticides Board
- To facilitate framing of National standards on Pesticides for monitoring their quality and residues
E. Techno-legal Cell (TLC)
- Co-ordination of work of RPTLs at headquarters regarding testing of chemical and biopesticides
- Forwarding of analysis reports of the samples received from RPTLs through centralized coding cell after billing and sealing
- Earmarking of analysis capacity to states / UTs which either do not have pesticides testing laboratories or adequate facilities for testing of all pesticides at RPTLs
- Updating / upgrading the analytical facilities at RPTLs / SPTLs
- Technical scrutiny of proposals, received from States/UTs, for release of Grants-in-aid for strengthening /setting up of State Pesticides Testing Laboratories (SPTLs) and forwarding of proposals to DAC&FW
- Monitoring utilization of Grants-in-aid
- Notification of Central Insecticide Inspectors and monitoring of their work
- Extending guidance to States, Central Insecticide Inspectors, etc.
- Technical auditing of State Pesticide Testing Laboratories (SPTLs)
- Preparation/consolidation of statistical information on the above items
F. National Pesticides Reference Repository (NPRR)
- This laboratory will initially obtain technical grade pesticides, purify, standardize and supply them to pesticides testing laboratories in the country
- Subsequently, it will synthesize all the technical grade pesticides
- Standardize primary and secondary standards
- Supply reference standards/Certified Reference Material (CRM) to all Pesticides Testing Laboratories. It would also be capable of providing them to Private Laboratories
G. National Pesticides Investigation Laboratory (NPIL)
- Detection of lacing of biopesticides and bio products with chemical pesticides
- Detection of pesticides imported in the garb of other chemicals/intermediates by analyzing the samples, sent by the Government authorities
- Verification of veracity of analysis of samples of pesticides by the Insecticide Analysts in all pesticides testing laboratories
- Development/validation of methods of analysis of newly introduced molecules and to provide them to all pesticides testing laboratories in the country.
- Support to Environment Impact Study Cell of the Registration Committee
2. STRENGTHENING AND MODERNIZATION OF PLANT QUARANTINE FACILITIES IN INDIA (SMPQF)
The scheme has been continuing as a Central Sector Scheme since 1949. The Scheme is implemented by the Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage in accordance with DIP Act, 1914, International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 1951.
Government’s primary objectives under the scheme are:
- To prevent introduction and spread of exotic pests that are harmful to crops by regulating/restricting import of plant/plant products.
- To support market access for India’s Agriculture products
- To facilitate safe global trade in agriculture by providing the producers and exporters a technically competent and reliable phytosanitary certification system to meet the requirements of trading partners.
Government of India notified Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India) Order, 2003 under which Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) of agricultural commodities is mandatory before import is permitted to safeguard Indian agriculture. There are 57 Plant Quarantine stations at major airports, seaports and land frontiers implementing PQ regulations.
The major activities under the scheme include-
- Conducting the Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) to finalize phytosanitary requirements for import of plant/plant material.
- Inspection of imported agricultural commodities for preventing the introduction of exotic pests and diseases inimical to Indian fauna and flora to ensure agricultural bio-security.
- Inspection of agricultural commodities meant for export and issue of phytosanitary certificates as per the requirements of importing countries under International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
- Detection of exotic pests and diseases already introduced for containing/controlling them by adopting domestic quarantine regulations.
- Undertaking Post Entry Quarantine Inspection (PEQ) in respect of identified planting materials.
3. MONITORING OF PESTICIDES' RESIDUES AT NATIONAL LEVEL (MPRNL)
- A programme for pesticide residue monitoring in/on various food commodities such as vegetables, fruits, cereals, spices, pulses, milk, animal feed, fish, meat, tea, honey, dry fruits, egg, soil and irrigated water.
- About 2% samples have recorded pesticides residues above national and CODEX MRLs.
- No pesticide is registered in India now without fixing MRLs
- To augment certification programme in the long run